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Na što treba pripaziti na deklaracijama modula

Za investitore najvažnije je odabrati kvalitetnu opremu za izgradnju sunčanih elektrana, stoga se važno upoznati i s nekim fizičko-tehničkim zakonitostima kako bi se izbjegla eventualna neugodna iznenađenja. U nastavku su sumarno iznesene osnovne karakteristike LID i PID efekata i njihov utjecaj na snagu modula.For investors, the most important is to choose quality equipment for the construction of solar power plants, so it is important to be familiar with some of the physical and technical principles in order to avoid possible unpleasant surprises. Below are outlined the basic characteristics of LID and PID effects and their impacts on the power of the modules.Für Investoren ist das wichtigste, um hochwertige Ausrüstung für den Bau von Solarkraftwerken auswählen, so ist es wichtig, vertraut sein mit einigen der physikalischen und technischen Regeln, um mögliche unangenehme Überraschungen zu vermeiden. Nachstehend folgt eine Zusammenfassung skizziert die grundlegenden Eigenschaften der LID-und PID-Effekte und ihre Auswirkungen auf die Modulen.

LID (Light Induced Degradation) efekt javlja se kod prvog izlaganja monokristalnih, odnosno polikristalnih sunčanih ćelija UV zračenju. Naime izlaganjem sunčanih ćelija UV zračenju dolazi do smanjenja njihove učinkovitosti proizašle iz defekata u vezi bora i kisika u kristalnoj strukturi silicija od kojeg je izrađena ćelija te iz defekata na spoju silicija i antireflektirajućeg sloja ćelije (SiN:H-Si spoj). Pod uvjetima ozračenja od 1000 W/m2 LID efekt traje oko 72 sata i u konačnici može rezultirati padom izlazne snage standardnog 60-ćelijskog modula za 1-2%, odnosno za 2-5 Wp u odnosu na deklariranu snagu modula.

Fizikalno LID efekt nije moguće izbjeći, ali je moguće, što je važno za krajnjeg korisnika, tražiti da se deklarirana snaga fotonaponskog modula odnosi na snagu dobivenu nakon izlaganja UV zračenju. Tako bi krajnji korisnik mogao znati kolika je stvarna snaga modula.

PID (Potential Induced Degradation) efekt povezan je s padom učinkovitosti fotonaponskog modula. Sam efekt posljedica je relativno visokog radnog napona fotonaponskog modula (600-1000 VDC). Zbog razlike električnog potencijala sunčane ćelije i aluminijskog okvira modula (potencijal Zemlje) stvara se električno polje dovoljno snažno da podržava strujanje elektrona iz sunčane ćelije u okvir modula. Kao posljedica toga efikasnost ćelije, odnosno modula opada te je moguće smanjenje efikasnosti modula i do 20%. Povišene temperature i vlažnost okoline podržavaju negativni PID efekt.

PID efekt može se prevenirati pravilnom konstrukcijom modula tako da se dovoljnim razmacima i debljinom slojeva i pravilnim odabirom materijala onemogući induciranje električnog polja koje bi utjecalo na smanjenje učinkovitosti modula.

Važno je odabrati module dobavljača koji poput IBC Solar AG deklariraju snagu modula po završenom LID efektu. Naime, to rezultira linearnom garancijom izlazne snage od 100% nazivne vrijednosti. Osim toga, pravilnom konstrukcijom IBC-ovih modula izbjegnuta je pojava PID efekta čime je osiguran dugoročan rad fotonaponskih modula u skladu s tehničkim specifikacijama proizvođača te su krajnjem korisniku zajamčene optimalne performanse uz minimalan gubitak učinkovitosti.LID (Light Induced Degradation) effect occurs with the first exposure monocrystalline or polycrystalline solar cells to the UV radiation. Namely, the exposure of the solar cells to the UV radiation leads to reduction of their efficiency resulting with defects related wrinkles and oxygen in the crystal structure of silicon from which are cells made and the defects at the interface of silicon and anti reflective layer of cells (SiN: H-Si compound). Under the conditions of irradiation of 1000 W/m2 LID effect lasts about 72 hours and can ultimately result in less power output standard 60-cell modules for 1-2% or 2-5 Wp compared to its rated power module.

Physical LID effect can not be avoided, but it is possible, which is important for the end user, look for the declared power photovoltaic module that refers to the power obtained after exposure to UV radiation. So the end user could know what is the real power of the modules.

PID (Potential Induced Degradation) effect is associated with a fall in the efficiency of photovoltaic modules. This effect is a consequence of relatively high operating voltage photovoltaic module (600-1000 V). Because of the difference of electric potential solar cell and the module aluminum frame it creates an electric field strong enough to support the flow of electrons from the solar cells within the module. As a result, the efficiency of the module decreases and the possible reduction of module efficiency up to 20%. Elevated temperature and humidity support the negative PID effect.

PID effect can be prevented with proper construction of the module with sufficient spaces and thickness of the layers and the proper selection of materials prevent inducing an electric field which would affect its performance modules.

It is important to choose a module suppliers such as IBC Solar AG. They declare the power of the module upon the completion of LID effect. Specifically, this results in a linear power output guarantee of 100% of the nominal value. In addition, the proper construction of IBC’s the module avoided the emergence of PID effect, thereby ensuring a long-term operation of photovoltaic modules in accordance with the technical specifications of the manufacturer and to the end user are guaranteed optimum performance with minimal loss of efficiency.

Es ist wichtig, Module von Anbietern wie IBC Solar AG auswählen, die Power der Module nach Abschluss LID Effekt erklären. Konkret, das führt zu eine lineare Leistungsgarantie von 100% des Nennwertes. Darüber hinaus die richtige Konstruktion von IBC-Module vermeidet das Aussehen der PID-Effekt und sorgt so für langfristigen Betrieb von Photovoltaik-Modulen bei Übereinstimmung mit den technischen Spezifikationen des Herstellers und den Endverbraucher eine optimale Leistung bei minimalem Verlust an Effizienz garantiert.